Stanford undertakes extensive action to reduce energy use in academic and administrative buildings through conservation, improved efficiency, and renewable power generation. Stanford’s suite of energy-saving programs target large-scale building retrofits, small-scale retrofits, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) controls, as well as user programs.
Since 2001, the annual Winter Closure Program has identified the two-week campus shutdown over the winter holidays as an opportunity to conserve energy by turning off heating and ventilation systems in most buildings across campus. The two-week shutdown became mandatory in 2003 through a program administered jointly by the Department of Sustainability and Energy Management and Zone Management. To encourage participation from building occupants and students, Stanford hosts a Turn Off for Break campaign that focuses on individual contributions to energy conservation in offices, labs, and dorms. Since its inception, Winter Closure has resulted in a cumulative net energy cost savings of nearly $5 million.
INTEGRATED CONTROLS AND ANALYTICS PROJECT (ICAP)
In 2017, Stanford launched the Integrated Controls and Analytics (iCAP) program, a pioneering initiative focused on maximizing the efficiency of building operations through central controls systems. As part of iCAP, the university implemented over 35 building control and upgrade projects. Wallenberg Hall, one of the larger iCAP projects completed in 2018, reduced energy usage by nearly 40% in its first year, and was jointly funded by the ERP program and Buildings and Grounds Management (BGM). In the next ten years, iCAP projects will be implemented in over 100 additional campus buildings. Stanford’s Facilities Energy Management (FEM) team works closely with partners to gather additional benefits from control systems data, using new software analytics tools like fault detection and diagnostics, predictive maintenance, and performance optimization. Stanford is utilizing Skyspark, a fault detection software, to retrocommission multiple buildings. Recommissioning the Knight Management Center is expected to save over $100,000 in energy savings.
LAB AIRFLOW MANAGEMENT
The FEM team continues to work collaboratively with Environmental Health & Safety, building occupants, and operations staff to further improve airflow management in large laboratory buildings. These facilities are typically the largest energy consumers on campus due to the amount of ventilation required for occupant safety. Studies conducted in 2014 identified innovative strategies to reduce HVAC-related energy needs in lab buildings, and WBERP projects are included in their retrofits. In one research building, a combination of schedules and sensors reduces the frequency of air changes in a laboratory during unoccupied hours. At the Chem-Bio Lokey Building, lab airflow experts performed tests to confirm that hood airflow could be reduced when sashes are closed, while still meeting all health and safety standards.
RETURN TEMPERATURE OPTIMIZATION (RTO) PROGRAM
The Stanford Energy Systems Innovations (SESI) project was established in an effort to reduce campus greenhouse gas emissions, while also saving a significant among in operating costs over the project’s lifespan. SESI involved converting gas-powered steam boilers to a campus heating and cooling system, and switching conventional chillers to electrically-powered Heat Recover Chillers (HRCs). To ensure maximum energy and resource savings while keeping utility rates low, the system must function effectively to ensure the HRCs receive optimal return water after it has been distributed and utilized for heating or cooling purposes by the campus. Otherwise, the HRCs consume more electricity and are at risk for premature failure. Through the RTO program, engineers from FEM, Zone Management, and Energy Operations work together to identify opportunities to optimize campus heating and cooling usage by implementing mechanical improvements and controls programming changes in buildings. Since its inception in 2014, the RTO program has completed work in over 45 campus buildings, and on average has improved return temperatures by 8°F.
RTO Case Studies
Since the campus converted to SESI and established HRCs, LBRE has worked aggressively to maintain optimal thermal conditions to ensure HRC reliability and lower operating costs. This is achieved through minimizing flow rates and hot water return temperatures, and by maximizing chilled water return temperatures at campus buildings. Below are examples of completed projects.
Arrillaga Outdoor Education and Recreation Pool
The pool heating control was upgraded from open/closed to modulating control, which allowed for tighter and more efficient control. To optimize heat exchange performance, flow rates were slowed to maximize heat transfer rates.
Falk Cardiovascular Center
Several areas of excess chilled water flow were identified at Falk. Root causes included failed cooling valves on building air handler units, as well as 3-way valves that prevented the building from using chilled water, instead returning unused water to the plant. After these issues were addressed, a dramatic increase in return temperature and dramatic decrease in flow rates were observed.
Whole Building Energy Retrofit Program (WBERP)
The Whole Building Energy Retrofit Program (WBERP) seeks to reduce energy consumption in Stanford’s most energy-intensive buildings. This $30 million capital program, which began in 2004 to address the 12 campus buildings consuming the most energy, now includes the top 27 buildings, representing 60% of total campus energy use. In 2018, construction started on the last two building retrofits, which were funded by WBERP, Chemical Biology (Lorey Lokey), and Terman Engineering Labs. Completed retrofits have delivered annual energy cost savings of $5.2 million to date (a payback of less than four years), and local utility rebates of $2.2 million. On average, buildings that have participated in the WBERP program see 24% reductions in energy usage, with some buildings with savings of up to 50%.
WBERP retrofits are expected to save $6.5 million a year and cut energy use in those buildings by 24%.
WBERP Case Studies
Energy Retrofit Program (ERP)
Since 1993, the ERP program has provided more than $15 million for projects to improve energy efficiency, and to reduce utility demand and associated building and maintenance costs. Rebates cover some or all of the upgrade costs, depending on the project payback period. Over 500 ERP projects have been completed, with cumulative annual savings of 41 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, 1,200,000 ton-hours of chilled water, and 21 million MBtu of hot water/steam, or cumulatively over $7 million at current utility rates. Any campus department that is a customer of Stanford Utilities can apply for ERP rebates for projects that save electricity or thermal energy. For more information, review the ERP Guidelines or contact Leslie Kramer.
ERP Case Studies
ERP Express: Office Equipment
The Cardinal Green Office Program aims to reduce electrical consumption within individual workstations and shared office areas. To support facility managers and building champions who seek an extra incentive to make strategic purchases and operational decisions, ERP Express for Office Equipment offers small rebates for the purchase and installation of appliance timers and Smart Strips. Download the ERP express application form for eligibility requirements, terms and conditions, as well as other important information about the rebate program.
ERP Express: Laboratory Equipment
Researchers on campus can qualify for rebates through ERP Express for Laboratory Equipment. Sustainability and Energy Management (SEM) offers rebates to labs that utilize room temperature storage and/or replace old ultra-low temperature freezers with more efficient models. Rebates can also be provided for other types of lab equipment, such as incubators and lasers, if proven energy-efficient models are purchased. Funding is available on a first-come, first-served basis. Offered as part of the Cardinal Green Labs program, there are several targeted opportunities available for labs to operate more sustainably.
Energy Conservation Incentive Program (ECIP)
Introduced in spring 2004, this program seeks to give schools and administrative units a financial incentive to use less electricity. The program sets a budget based on past consumption and lets participants “cash in” unused kilowatt-hours; those that exceed their electricity budgets pay the difference out of their own funds.
By the end of the program’s third full year, participants collectively used 3% less electricity than budgeted – netting total savings of $830,000. The program aims to reduce electricity use by 5% from a 2003 baseline. A number of schools and administrative units have achieved this goal, but others have had their baselines adjusted upward to accommodate additional electricity use from new buildings and expansion of research-driven activity.
BUILDING HVAC RECOMMISSIONING PROGRAM
Stanford systematically reviews the HVAC systems of 90 of its largest buildings, and adjusts or repairs the systems to ensure they work as designed. Technicians who conduct the reviews also recommend ways to further improve energy performance through ERP projects. All 90 buildings have been through an initial round of retro-commissioning and each building is revisited every four years.
sustainable IT Program
The Sustainable IT program is a joint effort between the Department of Sustainability and Energy Management and Information Technology Services to efficiently manage the extensive network of personal and campus computing equipment on campus. The program includes targeted efforts aimed at both personal equipment and the facilities that house more complex systems.